### Subtraction

### Year 1

Subtract from numbers up to 20.

Children consolidate understanding of subtraction practically, showing subtraction on bead strings, using cubes etc. and in familiar contexts, and are introduced to more formal recording using number lines as below:

Subtract by taking away

**1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12**

Find the ‘distance between’

### Mental subtraction

Children should start recalling subtraction facts up to and within 10 and 20, and should be able to subtract zero.

**Key vocabulary**: equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back, how many left, how much less is_?

**Key skills for subtraction at Y1:**

- Given a number, say one more or one less;
- Count to and over 100, forward and back, from any number;
- Represent and use subtraction facts to 20 and within 20;
- Subtract with one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including zero;
- Solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects (ie bead string, objects, cubes) and pictures, and missing number problems;
- Read and write numbers from 0 to 20 in numerals and words.

### Year 2

**Subtract with 2-digit numbers**

Subtract on a number line by counting back, aiming to develop mental subtraction skills.

This strategy will be used for:

- 2-digit numbers , subtract units (by taking away / counting back) e.g. 36 - 7
- 2-digit numbers , subtract tens (by taking away / counting back) e.g. 48 - 30
- Subtracting pairs of 2-digit numbers (see below)

Mental

**Key vocabulary:** equal to, take, take away, less, minus, subtract, leaves, distance between, how many more, how many fewer / less than, most, least, count back, how many left, how much less is_? difference, count on, strategy, partition, tens, units

**Key skills for subtraction at Y2:**

- Recognise the place value of each digit in a two-digit number;
- Recall and use subtraction facts to 20 fluently, and derive and use related facts up to 100;
- Subtract using concrete objects, pictorial representations, 100 squares and mentally, including: a two-digit number and ones, a two-digit number and tens, and two two-digit numbers;
- Show that subtraction of one number from another cannot be done in any order;
- Recognise and use inverse relationship between addition and subtraction, using this to check calculations and missing number problems;
- Solve simple addition and subtraction problems including measures, using concrete objects, pictorial representation, and also applying their increasing knowledge of mental and written methods;
- Read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words.